In the long process of development formed morphostructural features of the mountains of Central Asia and Kazakhstan
In the long process of development formed morphostructural features of the mountains of Central Asia and Kazakhstan. Tien Shan, Saur, Tarbagatai, Dzhungarsky Alatau, part of the ridges of the Pamirs belong to the revived belt, fold-hat mountain. Part of the Pamirs and Kopetdag – mountains of youth – hat-folded and folded.
The types of relief
A characteristic feature of the relief of the mountains of Central Asia and Kazakhstan is the tiering of the main types of topography and extensive development of surfaces alignment, which fragments are located at different hypsometric levels, and in the basins overlain by a cover of loose Neogene-Quaternary deposits.
The surface of the alignment are ancient relics of the smoothed topography that formed on the territory of the mountains to the commencement of the General crest of the uplift. The nature of them is different. In some cases, is a medium-altitude mountains smoothed, about 1-1,5 km rising above the upland plains, in addit ional – megagamete or hummocky upland plain with relative elevations of several tens to 250-500 m, in the third – almost marginal plains with vast flat areas – John – the result of erosion of the Cretaceous and Paleogene seas. They are common in all mountain systems of the major sections and separate slices on the tops of mountain ridges and their slopes.
Most commonly the surface of the alignment presented in the Internal Tien-Shan and Eastern Pamir. For Inner Tien-Shan is characterized by a wide flat-bottomed valley – Regio, smooth tops of mountain ranges, a small relative height (0.5-1 km).
Large areas are occupied by the surface alignment in Dzhungarskiy Alatau, about a third of the territory – in Saur and Tarbagatay ridges, low ridges of the Tajik depression and the Western periphery of the Tien Shan.
Glacial high-mountain (Alpine) terrain is highly characteristic of the mountains of Central Asia. Modern glaciers cover in the Tien Shan and in the Pamirs,about 2-2, 5% of the territory of mountains, and the area of ancient glaciation exceed 4-6 times. Thus, the Alpine terrain is widely distributed. It is characterized by a significant depth separation, wide range of altitudes, the predominance of groteskovy narrow crests with hard-to-reach peaks. Along with the usual mountains that has experienced glaciation, “set” forms of glacial relief (trough valleys, corries, cirques, peaks) there is a kind of narrow and deep troughs of the Turkestan type of glaciers and moraine terraces with undulating lowland terrain. The bottom of the side troughs are dropped to the bottom of the main trough high ledge of 50-200 m.
Especially typical Alpine topography for the areas of modern glaciation: the Northwest Pamir, mountain sites of Khan Tengri, matcha (the joint of Zeravshan, Turkestan and Alay ridges), Talgar massif AK-shyirak, etc. for the axial parts of the Dzungarian Alatau. Ancient glacier relief distributed in the ridges with altitudes of over 3000 m in the North and more than 4000 m in the South. It is not typical to the Kopetdag mountains.
Erosional relief is the most spread in the mountains. He emerged from the dismemberment of the ancient surfaces of leveling water flows. The maximum depth of the separation characteristic of svoeobraznyh slopes of the mountain uplifts. In the inner parts of the mountains, as well as in peripheral mountain areas at lower elevations the depth of the separation decreases.
The middle mountain erosive relief dominate crotolaria ridges, deeply incised valleys, gorges with very steep banks. Depth dissection here is from 0.4-0.8 to 1-1,5 km and in the Western Pamirs – up to 2.2 km. This is not only great in the height of peaks caused by amplitude recent uplifts, but also the aridity of the climate, which implies some slowness of the main slope process – delucchi. Elevation changes at a distance of 10-15 km reach 4000-5000 m.
At the big steepness of slopes is violated, the stability of mountain masses, we often have landslides and talus. The extensive development of the landslide-scree process also contributes to the seismicity of the mountains. Powerful landslides block river valleys, and behind them formed lakes.